Learn how to love the outdoors

Scotland has some truly special places, there for everyone to enjoy. Let’s keep them special.

So many people are feeling a greater need than ever to get out and explore the country we love. We are amongst them. But there are thousands of other people just like us – so if we love these places, we all need to behave at our very best to keep them special.

You will have heard about the “right to roam” – but what we actually have in Scotland is a right to responsible access. This is set out in the Scottish Outdoor Access Code – which governs what is responsible behaviour amongst both those of us enjoying the outdoors, and those of us working and living there. The code sets out where you can walk and how to do so without causing problems, but we’re highlighting five main issues: litter, parking, wild-camping, dogs and campervans.

Community campsite in Knoydart

Litter: Don’t be a tosser

We may be proud to live in such a beautiful country – but we’re not so proud of our national problem with litter. Tons is thrown from car windows alone. We’ve all seen the photos of left litter – whether in our countryside or in our cities; the culprits are in all parts of our society. Yes, we could really do with more or larger litter bins and more frequent collections in popular places – but if the bins are full, or there isn’t one, please take your litter with you until you can dispose of it properly.

If other people see one small item of litter, they are much more likely to go on and leave more themselves. It’s hard to change a culture overnight; the best we can do is to set a strong example, and leave no trace at all (that includes bags of dog poo!) – and, whenever we can, remove safely any items of litter we find left by others. Taking a bag with us helps with this. The fact is that tidy places are much more likely stay tidy.

Rubbish washed up from the sea, gathered up for removal


In the busy summer season there are many locations that can become congested – especially as parking is often quite limited. As with traffic congestion, there’s no point blaming other people if the car park for our intended walk is rammed full – after all, they are just people who had the same idea we did!

On the busiest weekends, be aware that some locations – like the east side of Loch Lomond – can become difficult or impossible places to find somewhere to park. One of the aims of Walkhighlands is to try to spread the visitor load by showing the huge number of places there are to visit – many of them unfrequented. When the large car parks at the busiest places are full, less popular walks often have less capacity and rely on limited roadside parking – often filled by just a couple of cars.

The Access Code doesn’t cover motorised transport, but it is how most of us reach our walks. Unlike some other countries, Scotland’s rural public transport doesn’t tend to have services designed with outdoor recreation in mind. The code actually states that where there is a parking problem, landowners should get in touch with local authorities to see if a car park can be provided. But that doesn’t help you right now. So what should you do?

  • always avoid parking in passing places on single track roads.
  • use a car park if there is one.
  • if you are heading to an area without proper car parks, be sure not to obstruct any gates or entranceways (as well as not obstructing the road itself!) Leave plenty of space around these for large vehicles such as tractors pulling trailers.
  • be prepared to park further from the start of your walk in order to avoid causing problems. Using a bike to reach the start of a walk can be a great help in avoiding the busiest parking locations.

If public transport is an option, try to use it – you’ll be helping reduce climate change as well as congestion.

Wild camping high in the hills

Wild-camping – and fires

The Scottish Outdoor Access Code allows for wild-camping, but in limited numbers only and only for 2 or 3 nights in one place, leaving no trace behind. With the surge in desire to get out in the countryside, all types of accommodation in Scotland are in demand, whilst Covid restrictions have reduced capacity. Many campsites now have rules that forbid single night stays, some are booked a year in advance.

All of this means that for many people wild camping may not even be done by choice, but simply as their only means of getting a much-needed trip away. This can so easily cause a major impact due to the higher numbers, so more care to reduce impact is needed than ever. If wild-camping:

  • please do not have a camp fire. It’s almost impossible to leave no trace, even without high numbers of people doing it. Soils across much of the Highlands consist of flammable peat, and they remain alight underground long after you think the fire has been extinguished – a recipe for disaster. Use a stove for cooking. If you really want a camp fire, stay on a campsite that allows them and has fire pits.
  • don’t use disposable barbecues – these work great at home on concrete patios or paving slabs, but in the countryside, they burn holes in wooden picnic tables, burn vegetation and set fire to the soil when used on the ground.
  • do not camp anywhere near buildings or communities.
  • do not camp in large groups or near other wild campers.
  • leave no trace – take *everything* you bring away with you.
  • take a trowel with you (they are cheaply available). If you can’t get to a public toilet, bury your poo well away from water. Seal your used toilet paper in a plastic bag and take it away with you.


Free-roaming dogs are the single biggest outdoors’ access concern for many farmers and their livestock. A single over-friendly dog can cause a pregnant ewe to abort, and far too many dog owners are unaware of the effect their dog can have. The Outdoor Access Code applies to people walking dogs – but only when their dogs are kept under proper control, and owners are asked not to take your dog into fields where there are lambs, calves or other young farm animals.

From April to July, your dogs should be kept on a short lead – or close at heel if very well-trained – in areas such as moorland, forests, grasslands, and loch shores; otherwise they will be disturbing ground-nesting birds and preventing breeding, probably without you ever being aware.

Campervans and motorhomes

Campervans and motorhomes have been growing in popularity, following the trend of recent decades in continental Europe; partly because they reduce the need for planning and allow more spontaneity (a key concern with Scottish weather!). These vehicles – usually with their own toilets (and bins) on board – are a great way to see Scotland, and can reduce the excessive driving sometimes caused by travelling to-and-fro from fixed accommodation.

Unfortunately though, there have been problems on all sides. Scotland (and the UK) lags far behind other countries when it comes to disposal facilities. Roughly every 3 or 4 days campervans need to empty their toilet waste, and we have very few facilities provided for this, made worse by the fact that fluid is still sold that can’t be disposed of in the septic tanks common in the Highlands. Many of what would be the most responsible parking spots have had overnight stays forbidden. In France (for example), vans are tolerated in many community car parks – and even just outside campsites – allowing people to use local businesses. Such car parks are known as aires; there is no booking possible and in rural areas they are usually free. In Scotland there has been much publicity that aires are being created, but what has actually happened is that a new type of campsite has sprung up that is for campervans only – requiring advance bookings that go against one of the main reasons to use a campervan.

On the other hand, a large proportion of tourers in Scotland are using hire companies, and many people are not aware of what is regarded as good etiquette when not staying on a campsite.

  • if faster traffic is behind you, pull over to allow them to pass (use passing places on single track roads).
  • consider the size of your vehicle; to reduce impact, smaller is better. Larger motorhomes do not fit in parking spaces intended for cars and are much less suitable on narrow rural roads.
  • park responsibly; leave space for others and never block whole parking areas by parking across to try to ‘reserve’ more space for yourself.
  • always dispose of toilet waste responsibly; due to lack of facilities in UK this often means you will need to use a campsite. Note that unlike abroad, many campsites here won’t allow disposal unless you are staying at least one night. Use only eco (green) toilet fluid.
  • do not empty your fresh water tank in public. Although harmless, people who do not know how campervans work often assume the water coming from beneath a van to be toilet waste, and then post about it on social media or tell others. Empty any fresh water left on your driveway at home if you have to. Grey water should be disposed of at a manhole or on a campsite with a suitable facility (very few campsites in Scotland have such a facility – most having grey waste only for caravans).
  • when not on a campsite, observe the same rules as on aires in France or other countries – this means no ‘camping behaviour’ – use of chairs, tables, awnings, barbecues etc. are all reserved for campsites only.
  • do not park up near houses or where likely to cause a nuisance.
Sleeping in a vehicle

Residents and visitors

Some of us are lucky enough to live in a place so beautiful that many other people love to visit it, in order to be able to enjoy the nature they lack on their own doorsteps.

How can those of us who live in rural communities play our part? Whilst it may be tempting to try to keep things for yourself, consider visitors too. Try not to be tempted to block off or reduce access or parking from what there has been previously. Remember that when we do this, those visitors don’t vanish, they head somewhere else nearby which becomes ever busier, and that cumulatively this increases rather reduces the problems. There are some Corbetts for instance where there is now literally no suitable place where people have not been officially banned from parking – effectively meaning there is no access except for those willing to ignore signs. Do we wish to make ignoring signs a necessity?

Some people do indeed behave terribly; if you see illegal behaviour, then do report it, either to local rangers or the police, as appropriate. However, remember that the majority of visitors really don’t want to cause any problems, and perhaps you could help them avoid doing so whilst they enjoy their visit. Do not tar everyone with the same brush; it may be hard sometimes, but things will only improve when people on all sides – locals and visitors – treat each other with respect.

If visitors feel unwelcome and unwanted by us local people, they are more likely to behave in ways that cause us problems.

The key to a better future is based on respect – both respect from visitors for local residents, and respect from local residents for our visitors.

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You should always carry a backup means of navigation and not rely on a single phone, app or map. Walking can be dangerous and is done entirely at your own risk. Information is provided free of charge; it is every walker's responsibility to check it and to navigate safely.